My Mustard from netetou/ soumbara/ dawadawa with the handle.
The Robert dictionary defines the feminine noun mustard, as being :
A cruciferous plant with yellow flowers, of which several species are cultivated for their seeds (cuisine, pharmacy).
A condiment prepared with mustard seeds, vinegar, etc.
Some historical facts...
"The History of Mustard
From Asia to Burgundy
Already known in antiquity, in Greece and Rome, this tasty specialty was the delight of discerning palates.
The Chinese already cultivated it there is 3000 years and were the first to grind the seeds and mix them with an acid juice extracted from grapes, the verjuice, to get mustard.
In Avignon, Pope John XXII prized her so much that he created the much envied charge of “pope's first mustard maker”.
In the 14th century, she sits at the table of the Dukes of Burgundy during the sumptuous festivals of Rouvres and becomes synonymous with wealth and refinement. Of the 1390, the production of Dijon mustard is strictly regulated. Anyone who made a bad mustard was immediately subject to heavy fines.
What does the legend say ?
In 1383, Charles VI, King of France, appeals to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, to go and help the besieged Count of Flanders. He gathers an army of 1 000 men, and to finance it, decides to collect a tithe from the powerful mustard merchants (name of the mustard of the time). He fights and wins the battle for liberation.
Returning to Dijon, it is written “I can't wait to go back to Dijon“, inscription which is embroidered on the flag of the procession.
But on arriving in Dijon, the flag flutters in the wind and a fold hides the “me”. The people of Dijon see the flag from afar and cry out “the mustard army is coming“. Grateful, Philippe le Hardi authorizes mustard makers to become mustard makers and to use the arms of Burgundy on their products. »
In France, 1kg per year per person is the average consumption of mustard assessed. Mustard is therefore well established at the center of eating habits in France and in many countries in the world and particularly in certain countries in sub-Saharan Africa..
However, today finding a jar of this condiment in some supermarkets is becoming difficult.
Why this shortage ?
From the outset, you will answer me the war in Ukraine !!!This highlights the virtual dependence of the world not only on Ukrainian and Russian wheat, also partly with mustard seeds.
Indeed, in part only because as far as France is concerned, particularly, 80 % seeds essential for the production of this condiment each year, come from Canada. Or, severe drought destroyed the vast majority of crops. The hassle of supply is explained by the difficulty of producers to obtain seeds at a reasonable price..
This shortage could be an opportunity for neighboring African countries in the Sahelian zone.. The opportunity for the fifteen of them (in which the plant is found in greater or lesser quantity), to highlight the néré, this plant that many consider magical, of which nothing is lost, transforms and whose fermented seed is often called "African mustard"
“The origin of néré has been the subject of heated debate by specialists in botany.. Currently, it is found in the agro-forestry parks of the Sudanian savannahs, from Senegal in the West to Uganda in the East.(…) Its name "néré" in Bambara is the most commonly used to designate the tree whose scientific name is Parkia biglobosa.. The néré also takes different names in French : mimosa powder, flour tree, wild animal tree, african carob tree (Dalziel, 1937) and “African locust bean” in English. According to Traore (2007), it's a big tree 15 to 20 m in height, with a broad, spreading, umbrella-shaped crown and biparipinnate, dark green leaves. Each sheet consists of 14 to 30 pairs of more or less opposite pinnules with each 50 to 70 pairs of leaflets of 1,5 cm long and 3 cm wide. Its bark looks like scales with a rusty edge and its rachis is grayish to light brown in color and downy..»
« A / Traditional process for processing Néré seeds The main steps in making sumbala :
– The raw seeds are subjected to cooking which lasts 20 and 48 h. She leads : “a loss of astringency or bitterness of the seeds and, above all, softening of the seminal integument, thus facilitating shelling.” 21 – The seeds are then washed with plenty of water. – The almond is subjected to a second cooking of approximately 1 hour. This step is : “a kind of bleaching helping to minimize undesirable secondary contamination resulting from the various manipulations during shelling”22. – Almonds are drained – the cooked seeds are put to ferment at the bottom of a canary or a calabash where they are covered with leaves, at a temperature of 30 at 40°C for 3 days or more. The fermented Néré seeds are finally dried in the sun. »
I invite you to read the resources at the end of the article to learn more about this tree.
« Contacted by Anadolu, the Chadian nutritionist, Jean-Pierre Varé, specifies that Néré flour and its fermented grains are prescribed by doctors both in cases of malnutrition and hypertension. “The yellow flour from Néré is rich in protein, calcium and iron. She is very nutritious. C & rsquo; is why, its porridge is recommended by doctors to children and adolescents who suffer from malnutrition, Néré grains are, also, effective against blood pressure”, does he inform.
“One hundred grams of dry Néré flour provide the body with 432 calories and contain 36,5 mg of protein, 28 ,8 grams of lipids, 378 mg iron, vitamin BB and number of nutrients”, says the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in a study published in January 2016.
In addition to its nutritional value, Néré has proven benefits against several diseases. The FAO indicates in this regard that the regular consumption of this product and its derivatives would be a good way to prevent high blood pressure., even, to fight against it. The plant would prevent and reduce certain forms of anemia. It also seems that it gives very good results in the treatment of certain cases of decalcification., according to the same source.
For some Cameroonian communities, the branch of the Néré plant is a remedy for snakebites and burns. "The branch of Néré is effective against the venoms of snakes. We press the fresh pieces of twig in a clay container, so as not to lose the sap and apply it to the bite, This helps to neutralize the poison and the swellings», tells Anadolu, the Cameroonian traditional doctor, Ousmanou Modou.
In Senegal, the mooré community recently discovered that the Néré intervenes, moreover, in the treatment of toothache and strengthens tooth enamel.(…) »
One of my alternatives to classic mustard
Make way for the recipe
My Nététou/ Soumbara/ Dawadawa mustard with mango…
My Mustard from nététou/ soumbara/ dawadawa with mango (Wink at the restaurant bmkParis Back to top, particularly in Fousseyni.
What you need
- 50 g of nettle/ soumbara/ dawadawa... in powder
- 120 g ripe mango, cut into pieces
- 110 g cider or white vinegar (or 60g of vinegar and 50 g lime or yellow lemon juice for an even milder mustard)
- 80g of water
- 40 g neutral oil (peanut, sunflower, colza, grape seeds, cotton…)
- 20 g of turmeric
- 20 g cassava flour
- 1tsp fleur de sel
- 1level teaspoon of sliced garlic powder
- 1tsp ground white Penja pepper a few minutes before
Realization of the recipe
- Combine all the dry ingredients and mix them well (dried up) back together to make them even finer
- Mix the mango cut into pieces with half the water, add all other liquid elements, crush again
- In a pot, mix all ingredients (the dry ones, liquids)
- Let simmer over medium heat, stirring, during about 10 minutes
- Treat yourself !
* You can instead of garlic semolina, use 2 large cloves of garlic crushed with the apple of the hand to get the aroma and taste
* You can add to flavor our condiment, aromatic herbs, spices, and other fruits that bring a slight sweetness and a lot of smoothness (papaya, melon, mirabelle…). I have me, a preference for mango with nététou, soumbara, medicine...
For further, some reading
*The nere, a heritage tree of Upper GuineaNere tree, a cultural heritage of Upper Guinea Mabetty Touré https://doi.org/10.4000/belgeo.21569